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Perth Haematology :: Dr Steven Ward

Myelodysplasia (MDS)

Myelodysplasia (or MyeloDysplastic Syndrome [MDS]) is a group of blood disorders characterised by low cell counts in the blood due to the inability of the marrow to produce normal fully-mature cells. The cells affected can be white cells, red cells, platelets, or any combination. The cells are not allowed to mature properly in the marrow and often do not contain all the necessary ingredients to allow them to function properly. The cells therefore look funny and may not do their job properly (hence the term dysplasia). The cells are often removed from  the circulation earlier than usual. the marrow is often very active in producing cells, but the circulating cell counts are low. Sometimes increased numbers of precursor cells are seen in the blood.

Types of Myelodysplasia:    Links to MDS pages:
bulletRefractory Anaemia
bulletSideroblastic Anaemia (Refractory Anaemia with Ring Sideroblasts)
Low-grade MDS
bulletRefractory Cytopenia with Multilineage Dysplasia
bulletRefractory Anaemia with Excess Blasts
High-grade MDS

CMML (Chronic MyeloMonocytic Leukaemia) used to be termed a form of MDS but is now more accurately defined as a crossover myeloproliferative / myelodysplastic disorder. See page on CMML.

Prognostic Score for MDS (IPSS)

Score:

0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

 

Risk Group

Total Score

Median Survival

Time for 25% AML progression

Marrow Blasts

<5%

5-10

----

11-20

21-30

LOW

0

5.7yr

9.4yr

Karyotype

Good

Intermed

Poor

 

 

INT-1

0.5-1.0

3.5yr

3.3yr

Cytopenia

0 / 1

2 / 3

 

 

 

INT-2

1.5-2.0

1.1yr

1.1yr

 

HIGH

>=2.5

0.4yr

0.2yr

Cytogenetics:    Good: normal, -Y, del(5q), del(20q)                Cytopenia:  Neutrophils: <1.8 x 109/L

                           Poor: complex (>=3 abn), chrom 7 abn                            Hb < 100 g/L

                           Intermediate: others                                                           Platelets: <100 x 109/L